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Detailed Table of Contents

 

Acknowledgements

Introduction

PART I: THE FUNDAMENTALS

Chapter 1 — Ground Rules for Feeding a Horse

            The Basics

                        Getting by with only hay

            Understanding the Digestive Tract of a Horse

                        Horses need to eat hay and/or pasture at all times

                        Digestive system

                                    Chewing

                                    Traveling down the esophagus

                                    The stomach

                                    The small intestine

                                    The cecum

                                    The colon

            Type of Feed

                        Forages

                                    Nutritional value of hay

                        Concentrates

                        Beet pulp

                        A note about the glycemic index of feeds

                                    Corn and barley

            Supplementation

            How to Read a Feed Label

            Hay Analysis 

                        Common terms in a hay analysis report    

                                    Crude protein (CP)

                                    Acid detergent fiber (ADF)

                                    Neutral detergent fiber (NDF)

                                    Relative feed value (RFV)

                                    Non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC)

                                    Non-structural carbohydrates (NSC)

                                    Water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC)

                                    Ethanol-soluble carbohydrates (ESC)

                                    Starch

                                    Calculating NSC

                                    Calcium to phosphorus ratio

                                    Calcium to magnesium ratio

            Salt and Water

            Special Case: Feeding Donkeys and Mules

                        The basic diet for donkeys and mules

 

Chapter 2 — Fundamentals of Carbohydrates

            Fiber Digestion

            Anatomy of a Cereal Grain

            Non-Structural Carbohydrates

                        Sugars

                        Polysaccharides

                                    Starch

                                    Fructan

                                    Fibers

            Analysis Measurements

                        Fibrous measures

                        Sugars, fructan, and starch measures

                                    Water soluble carbohydrates, ethanol soluble carbohydrates, and starch

                                    Keeping NSC low

            Summary

 

Chapter 3 — Fundamentals of Fats

            Benefits of Fat

            Adding Fat to the Diet

                        Special cases

                        The form matters

                                    Coconut oil: no innocent fat source!

                                    Liquid fats

            How Fats Differ Chemically

                        Saturated fatty acids

                        Unsaturated fatty acids

                                    Monounsaturated fatty acids

                                    Polyunsaturated fatty acids

                        Omega-3 fatty acid function and sources

                                    Fish oils

                                    Flaxseed

            Commonly Fed Fat Sources

                        Vegetable oils

                                    Sunflower seeds

                                    Adding vitamin E

                                    Wheat germ and corn oils

                                    Animal fat and coconut oil

                                    Fresh pasture and cereal grains

                                    Gamma oryzanol

                                    The best fat to choose

            Volatile Fatty Acids

            Summary

 

Chapter 4 — Fundamentals of Protein and Amino Acids

            Protein Digestion

            Protein Deficiency

            Poor-Quality Protein

            Determining Protein Quality

            Feeding Too Much Protein

                        Calcium loss

            Protein Requirements

            Laminitis and Protein

            Summary

 

Chapter 5 — Fundamentals of Minerals

            Functions

            Individual Minerals

                        Macrominerals

                                    Calcium

                                    Chloride

                                    Magnesium

                                    Phosphorus

                                    Potassium

                                    Sodium

                                    Sulfur

                        Microminerals (trace)

                                    Cobalt

                                    Chromium

                                    Copper

                                    Fluoride

                                    Iodine

                                    Iron

                                    Manganese

                                    Selenium

                                    Silicon

                                    Zinc

            Mineral Content Can Vary

            Minerals are Indestructible!

            Mineral Interactions and Supplementation

                        Free-choice minerals

                        Testing your horse’s mineral status

                                    Hair analysis

 

Chapter 6 — Fundamentals of Vitamins

            Water-Soluble Vitamins

                        Sidebar: Free radicals — bad guys meet their match in antioxidants

                        Vitamin C

                                    Functions of vitamin C

                                    Horses produce their own vitamin C

                                    Circumstances when vitamin C intake is a concern

                                    Supplements

                        B vitamins

                                    Energy production

                                    Body proteins

                                    Skin, hooves, and hair

                                    Red blood cells

                                    Nervous system

            Fat-Soluble Vitamins

                        Vitamin A

                                    What does vitamin A do?

                                    Vitamin A deficiency

                                    Vitamin A toxicity

                                    Meeting your horse’s requirement

                        Vitamin D

                                    Function of vitamin D

                                    Forms of vitamin D

                                    Requirement

                                    Toxicity

                        Vitamin E

                                    Sources of vitamin E

                                    Forms of vitamin E

                                    Requirement

                                    Not enough vitamin E

                                    Treatment with large dosages of vitamin E

                                    No problem with over-supplementation

                        Vitamin K

                                    Requirement and sources

 

Chapter 7 — Fundamentals of Water and Electrolytes

            Water Balance

                        Water output

                                    Fecal losses

                                    Urine losses

                                    Losses from skin

                                    Respiratory and lactation losses

                        Water intake

            Determining Optimal Hydration

                        Drinking enough water while traveling

            Electrolytes and Salt

                        Electrolyte supplements

                                    Free-choice supplements

                                    Summary

            Water Safety

                        Pond water

                                    Winter

 

Chapter 8 — Fundamentals of Forages

            Pasture vs Hay

            Types of Hay

                        Nutritional value of grass hay

                        Nutritional value of legume hay

                        Mixtures

                        Cereal grain hay

                        Problems with fescue

            Evaluating Hay Quality

                        Maturity level

                        Cutting

                        Storing hay

                        Blister beetles

            How Hay Fits into Your Feeding Plan

                        Round bales

                        Grass clippings

            Toxic Plants

                        Common plants

                        Animal poison control center

                        Prevention

 

Chapter 9 — Fundamentals of Concentrates and By-Products

            Digestive Energy Requirements

            Concentrates

                        Cereal grains

                                    Oats

                                    Corn

                                    Barley

                        High fat concentrates

                                    Soybean meal

                                    Seed meals

                                    Vegetable oils

                        Commercial feeds

                                    Sweet feeds

                                    Pelleted feeds

                                    Extruded feeds

            By-Products

                        Beet pulp

                        Brewer’s and distiller’s grain

                        Wheat middlings

                        Soybean, sunflower, and cottonseed hulls

                        Bran

                                    Bran mashes

                        Corn gluten

            Special Section — Protecting Your Horse From Mycotoxins

 

Chapter 10 — Fundamentals of Treats

            Unconventional “Treats”

                        More than hamburgers and French fries!

            To Treat or Not to Treat

            Fruits and Vegetables

            Candy

            Commercial Treats

                        Low sugar/low starch treats

            Concluding Part I

 

Part II: CONDITIONS, DISEASES, AND LIFE STAGES

 

Chapter 11 — Laminitis

            Founder and Laminitis

                        Acute vs chronic laminitis

                                    Acute laminitis

                                    Chronic laminitis

            Common Causes of Laminitis

                        Hormonal disorders

                                    Insulin resistance and chronically elevated insulin levels

                                    Equine Cushing’s disease

                        Genetics

                        Carbohydrate overload (grain founder)

                                    Overwhelming the small intestine

                                    Sudden elevation of insulin levels

                        Pasture laminitis

                        Concussion founder

            First Aid

                        Cold therapy

                        Activated charcoal

                        Reducing tension of the laminae

            Medications

                        Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)

                        Drugs that promote digital circulation

                        Antibiotics

            Feeding and Management Objectives

                        Beneficial supplements

                        Some things to avoid

                        Preventing abscesses

                        A little more about alfalfa…

            Summary

 

Chapter 12 — Weight Management

            How Much Does Your Horse Weigh?

                        Measuring your horse

                                    Calculating weight in pounds, using inches

                                    Calculating weight in kilograms (kg), using centimeters (cm)

                        Using a weight tape

            Henneke Body Condition Scoring System

            Weigh Your Concentrates

            The Easy Keeper

                        Feeding basics for the overweight horse

                                    Avoid weight loss products

                                    Avoid feeding cereal grain and sugary treats

                                    Consider an all-forage diet

                                    Provide hay free-choice

                                    Have your hay tested

                                    Let your horse graze on pasture, within limits

                        Beneficial supplements

                                    Multiple vitamin/mineral supplements

                                    Magnesium

                                    Vitamin E

                                    Omega-3 fatty acids

                        Exercise

                        Thyroid hormone replacement

            The Hard Keeper

                        Conditions that cause weight loss

                                    Medical problems

                                    Dental health

                                    Stress

                                    Pecking order

                        Helping your horse gain weight

                                    Attend to hindgut microbial population

                                    Understand the importance of B vitamins

                                    Give him more calories

                                    Feed your horse like a horse

                        Summary of managing the underweight horse

            The Severely Underweight Rescue Horse

 

Chapter 13 — Metabolic and Endocrine Disorders

            Insulin Resistance (Equine Metabolic Syndrome)

                        Crash course on insulin

                                    Regional fat deposits

                                    More than just fat storage

                                    A note about iron

                        Diagnosing insulin resistance

                        Treating insulin resistance

                                    Non-structural carbohydrates (NSC)

                                    Pasture grazing

                                    Exercise

                                    Keep the hay!

                                    Magnesium/chromium supplementation

                                    Omega-3 fatty acids

                                    Joint supplements containing glucosamine

                                    Medications

                                    Overview of how to feed the insulin resistant horse

            Case Study: Insulin Resistance

            Equine Cushing’s Disease — Pituitary Pars Intermedia Dysfunction (PPID)

                        Signs of PPID

                        Testing for PPID

                                    Dexamethasone suppression test (DST)

                                    ACTH measurement

                                    Other tests

                        Treating PPID

                                    Diet

                                    Grazing

                                    Care

                                    Medications

            Muscle Disorders

                        Exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER)

                                    Signs of exertional rhabdomyolysis

                                    Causes of ER

                                    What you should do for your horse

                                    Prevention and dietary treatment

                        Polysaccharide Storage Myopathy (PSSM)

                                    PSSM is most prevalent in specific breeds

                                    Diagnosis

                                    Treatment and exercise

                                    Diet

                        Multiple acyl-coA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD)

                        Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis (HYPP)

                                    Nutritional management

                                    Additional guidelines

            Thyroid Function

                        Hypothyroidism or something else?

                        Enlarged thyroid gland

                                    Goiter

                                    Age

                                    Hyperthyroidism

                        Iodine

            Hyperlipemia

                        Starvation or stress

            Nutritional Secondary Hyperparathyroidism (NSH)

                        NSH symptoms

                        Treating NSH

 

Chapter 14 — Digestive Problems

            Gastric Ulcers

                        Reasons ulcers develop

                                    Performance

                                    Stress

                                    Improper feeding

                                    Pain relievers

                                    Summary

                        Signs of an ulcer

                        Diagnosing an ulcer

                                    Endoscopy

                                    Fecal blood test

                                    SmartPill

                                    Blood sucrose

                        Treatment

                                    Dietary adjustments

                                    Medications

            Colonic Ulcers and Right Dorsal Colitis (RDC)

                        Signs

                        Diagnosis

                                    Tests

                        Treatment

                                    Diet

                                    Additional treatments

            Colic

                        While waiting for your vet to arrive

                        Medical treatments

                        Causes and prevention

                                    Here are some important ways to avoid colic

                        Cecal impaction vs dysfunction

            Sand Colic

                        Ways to prevent sand colic

            Enteroliths

            Diarrhea

                        Acute diarrhea

                        Chronic diarrhea

                                    Prevent sand accumulation

                                    Encourage water drinking

                                    Establish a good deworming program

                                    Try changing feeds or hay supplies

                                    Reduce cereal grains

                                    Use a potent probiotic and prebiotic

                                    Give a large amount of vitamin B1

                                    Consider aluminomagnesium silicate

            Choking

 

Chapter 15 — Joints, Hair, Hooves, and Skin

            Joints

                        Joint nutraceuticals

                                    Glucosamine, chondroitin, MSM, and hyaluronic acid

                                    Herbs

                                    Fatty substances

                                    Amino acids

                                    Vitamins

                                    Minerals

                                    Others

                                    Choosing a supplement

                                    Injectables

                        Diseases of the joints

                                    Osteoarthritis (also known as degenerative joint disease)

                                    Physitis (epiphysitis)

                                    Osteochondrosis dissecans (OCD)

                                    Ligament and tendon damage

                                    Stringhalt

                                    Navicular

                                    Windpuffs

                        Medical treatments

            Hair and Hooves

                        Nutrient overview

                                    Selenium toxicity

                        Overall hoof health

                                    Young horses

                                    Thrush

                                    Dry hooves

                                    Wet hooves

                                    Hoof supplements

                        Hair loss

            Skin

                        Key nutrients for skin health

                        Common skin problems

                                    Photosensitivity

                                    Seborrhea (dandruff)

                                    Ringworm

                                    Rain rot (also called rain scald)

                                    Scratches

                                    Sarcoids

                                    Allergies

 

Chapter 16 — Immunity Issues

            Allergies

                        Sweet itch

                        Hives

                        Recurrent airway obstruction (heaves)

                                    Treatment

                        Photosensitivity

            Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis (EPM)

            Viral and Bacterial Infections

                        Viral infections         

                                    Equine herpes virus (rhinopneumonitis)

                                    Equine influenza

                                    Equine infectious anemia (EIA)

                                    Warts

                        Bacterial infections

                                    Pigeon fever

                                    Strangles

                                    MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus)

                                    Lyme disease

            Nutritional Approaches for Allergies and Other Immune-Related Disorders

                        Dr. Getty’s Fighting Formula

                                    Supporting nutrients

            A Word About Garlic and Heinz Body Anemia…

 

Chapter 17 — Stress and Behavior

            Weather Extremes

                        Accommodation for winter

                                    Calorie needs and outdoor temperatures

                                    Bran mashes

                                    Water

                                    Older horses

                                    Feet

                                    Blankets

                                    Shelter

                        Heat stress

                                    Testing for dehydration

                                    Effects of dehydration

                                    Treating mild dehydration

                        Sidebar: Know what’s normal for your horse!

            Transporting

                        Preparing for travel

                                    Stress diet

                        Guidelines while traveling

                        Signs of distress

                        Upon reaching your destination

            Training and Boarding

                        Agitated horse, borderline deficiency?

                                    Calming agents

            Weight Changes

                        Weight loss

                        Weight gain

            Ulcers

            Laminitis

            Hyperlipemia

            Behavior        

                        Hot horses

                        Cribbing

                                    Turnout as much as possible

                                    Keep hay in front of your horse

                                    Do not isolate your horse

                                    Consider ulcers

                        Head shaking

                        Eating manure

                        Weaning

                        Sleep

 

Chapter 18 — Breeding, Pregnancy, and Lactation

            Preparation for Breeding — Mares

                        Weight

                        Overall health

                        Plan for vaccinations and deworming

                                    Vaccinations

                                    Deworming

            Preparation for Breeding — Stallions

                        Fatty acids for sperm health

            The Pregnant Mare

                        A nutritious, balanced diet

                                    Fresh pasture

                                    Good quality hay

                                    Alfalfa

                                    Vitamin E and selenium

                                    Comprehensive vitamin/mineral supplement

                                    Flaxseed meal

                                    Salt

                                    Concentrates

                        Forage troubles

                                    Fescue toxicity

                                    Glycoside, blister beetles, round bales

                        The last three months

                                    Calories

                                    Protein

                                    Minerals

                                    Simplifying the diet

            The Lactating Mare

                        Colostrum

                                    Dripping milk in advance of foaling

                        Energy requirements

                                    First two months

                                    Subsequent months

                        Other requirements

                                    Protein and lysine

                                    Minerals

 

Chapter 19 — Growth and Growing Old

            Preparing for Delivery

            The Newborn Foal

                        Umbilical cord          

                        Preventing constipation

                        Nursing

                                    Colostrum

            Potential Problems Shortly After Birth

                        Ruptured bladder

                        Dummy foal

                        Foal heat diarrhea

                        Jaundice

            The Growing Foal

                        Estimated foal weight

                                    7 to 28 days

                                    28 to 90 days

                        Creep feeding

                                    What to feed

                        Weaning

                                    Weaning stress

                                    Once weaned

            Preventing Developmental Orthopedic Disease

                        Sweet and starchy feeds

                        Protein

                        Minerals

                        Skeletal growth vs weight

            Preventing Nutritional Secondary Hyperparathyroidism (NSH)

            Deworming and Vaccinations

                        Deworming

                        Vaccinations

                                    Pneumonia

            Six to Twenty-Four Months

                        Nutrient requirements

                                    High-quality protein and lysine

                                    Fat and omega-3 fatty acids

                                    Fiber

                                    Beta carotene or vitamin A

                                    Vitamin D

                                    Vitamin E and selenium

                                    B vitamins

                                    Minerals

                        Exercise

                        Reaching maturity

            Growing Old

                        Dietary guidelines for senior horses

                                    The importance of flax

                                    Supplementing vitamin C

                                    Complete senior feeds

                                    Making your own feed

                                    The overweight horse may not need added concentrated meals

                        Trouble gaining weight

                                    Poor teeth and mouth pain

                                    Fast metabolic rate

                                    Competition

                                    Reduced hindgut microbial population

                        Other age-related problems

                                    Joint and muscle deterioration

                                    Insulin resistance and equine Cushing’s disease

                        Respiratory conditions

                        Liver and kidney disease

                                    Liver disease

                                    Kidney disease

                        Bottom line

            The Orphaned Foal

                        Colostrum replacement

                        Milk replacement

                                    Nurse mare

                                    Milk replacer

 

Chapter 20 — Athletes

            Defining Levels of Activity

            Nutrient Requirements

                        Variations between activity levels

                        Digestible energy

                                    Carbohydrates

                                    Fat

                        Protein

                        Vitamins

                                    B vitamins

                                    Vitamin A

                                    Vitamin D

                                    Vitamin C

                                    Vitamin E and selenium

                        Minerals

                                    Calcium, phosphorus, and electrolytes

            Exercise Induced Pulmonary Hemorrhage (EIPH)

            Sidebar: Nutrients to Heal a Broken Bone

            Ergogenic Aids

                        Gamma oryzanol

                        Creatine

                        L-carnitine

                        Lipoic acid

            Summary

 

Appendix — Crunching Numbers

            U.S. and Metric System Measurements and Conversions

                        Measurement terms

                        Conversions

                                    Parts per million (ppm)

            Calculation Instructions for Specific Examples

                        Chapter 1 — Ground rules for feeding a horse

                                    Calculating selenium content in the diet

                        Chapter 4 — Fundamentals of protein and amino acids

                                    Calculating lysine and methionine content in a feed

                                    Calculating grams of protein in an 8% crude protein hay

                        Chapter 5 — Fundamentals of minerals

                                    Macromineral content

                                    Micromineral content

                                    Determining the calcium to phosphorus ratio of your feeding plan

                                    Calculating iron concentration (ppm)

                                    Calculating selenium content

                        Chapter 6 — Fundamentals of vitamins

                                    Calculating vitamin C supplementation amount

                                    Calculating vitamin A intake

                        Chapter 13 — Metabolic and endocrine disorders

                                    Thyroid gland

                        Chapter 17 — Stress and behavior

                                    Calculating additional hay requirements during cold weather

                        Chapter 18 — Breeding, pregnancy, and lactation

                                    Calculating lysine content in 20 lbs of grass hay plus 10 lbs of alfalfa

                                    Energy needs of an 1100 lb lactating mare during first two months

                        Chapter 19 — Growth and growing old

                                    Calculating foal weight

                                    Weanling’s protein needs met by sample diet

                        Chapter 20 — Athletes

                                    Since fat provides 9.2 Mcal/kg, how many Mcal are in 2 cups of oil?



 

Return to Contents Page              Home Page: Feed Your Horse Like a Horse               Visit Dr. Getty's website: Getty Equine Nutrition

 

 

 

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