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CBD - What Can You Expect?

By Juliet M. Getty, Ph.D.

CBD. Whether you're already using it, you're thinking about it, or just plain never heard of it, it's worth getting more familiar with because it is truly remarkable. No, it is not the latest "snake oil," touting cures from hair loss to ingrown toenails. Instead, it is chemical messenger in the "endocannabinoid system," a natural and crucial part of the body. Research on this system is extensive, with years of examination and hundreds of studies.

 

My goal in writing this article is to offer you an overview of how CBD can impact your health as well as the health of your horses, dogs[1], and cats. From a personal perspective, I have experienced significant pain relief from sciatica. Many of my clients have decided to use it for themselves, offering them better sleep, lessened anxiety and depression, improved digestive health, allergy relief, and reduced pain.

 

Chester is my 22-year-old horse. He suffers from arthritis in his hocks and knees and is now moving with much greater ease. Clients who have decided to try CBD for their horses have offered very positive feedback. Inflammatory conditions, such as arthritis and ulcerations are showing improvement, as well as pain relief from laminitis. Horses with anxiety or "sensitive" behavior, have a more relaxed demeanor. And, metabolic conditions may be potentially alleviated, which is quite exciting. While it's too soon to tell if leptin and insulin levels are declining from CBD treatment, there have been studies showing how CBD reduces insulin resistance and obesity[2], as well as appetite, in people with type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome.[3] 

 


What is CBD and is it marijuana?

 

CBD is short for "cannabidiol," one of more than 80 different cannabinoids found in the cannabis plant. CBD and THC are the two most studied, and this is where many misunderstandings stem from.

Cannabis sativa L. (genus, species, and subspecies) is the "umbrella term" for the plants known as hemp and marijuana. Marijuana is particularly high in THC, the cannabinoid that creates a psychoactive "high." CBD, on the other hand, does not create this effect.

Hemp-derived CBD is not marijuana. Though both hemp and marijuana belong to the Cannabis genus, their genetic composition distinguishes them to produce vastly different amounts of THC. Hemp-derived CBD is high in CBD and very low in THC (less than 0.3%).

 

Though hemp-derived CBD is legal in all 50 states, thanks to the passing of the 2018 Farm Bill,[4] federal law does not preempt state law, and there are still some restrictions within various states.[5] Just as many cities throughout the country prohibit alcohol sales, there are local and state laws that restrict industrial hemp products. But bottom line, it is legal to purchase and consume hemp-derived CBD products. The FDA[6] does not regulate it so it behooves you to choose a reputable company that is willing to disclose the source, extraction method, and analysis of their products.

 


What is the endocannabinoid system?

 

The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a major signaling system that exists in you and your animals. It continually monitors any instability within the body and returns it to a state of balance or homeostasis so that the internal environment remains stable.

 

CBD and other cannabinoids are compounds that activate this system. Cannabinoids, both naturally produced by the body (endogenous), and those supplemented from cannabis (exogenous), act as "keys to these receptors, turning on a variety of functions.

 

Within the ECS there are two main cell receptors -- CB1 and CB2:


 

Endogenous cannabinoids are produced when the body signals that they are required, but are quickly degraded. Offering CBD (exogenous cannabinoid) allows the ECS to work harder and be more productive to help us and our animals deal with health issues such as:



Side effects

 

CBD has a favorable safety profile.[15] If overdosed, it can have some mild effects. These can include drowsiness, decreased blood pressure, dizziness, fatigue, and diarrhea. If you or your animals experience any of these, you can cut back on the dosage. Long-term use appears to be safe, though further research is needed.

 

Noteworthy: Until we know more, CBD should not be taken by pregnant women, though many women proport relief from nausea during pregnancy. Consult your veterinarian before giving it to a pregnant animal. It should not be given to children without professional permission. Since it can interact with some drugs[16], including anti-epileptic and blood thinner medications, it is best to consult with your doctor or pharmacist when you have any doubts.

 


Let's talk horses

As of this date, there are few, if any, research studies that use horses as subjects. But I expect this will quickly change as more and more companies are selling CBD for equine consumption. In the meantime, anecdotal responses are highly favorable. From first-hand accounts of horse owners, hemp-derived CBD appears to stimulate the horse's ECS in the same way it does yours. It is well tolerated, without any euphoric or adverse effects. Specific health conditions that CBD may improve, based on currently available studies with humans and laboratory animals include:


Horse competition rules and testing

The FEI (International Federation for Equestrian Sports - French: Federation Equestre Internationale) and the United States Equestrian Federation (USEF) have strict rules regarding medicating your horse prior to an event. Recently, the USEF announced that as of September 1, 2019, positive test results for cannabinoids will incur violations.[27]

Since it is THC that is detectable by a blood or urine test, it is highly unlikely for a positive test result to occur since hemp-derived CBD contains only minute amounts of THC. Nonetheless, it is possible, so it is best to discontinue its use 7 to 10 days prior to an event. Even if you choose a CBD isolate or broad-spectrum product (which does not contain any THC), it is best to err on the side of caution by stopping before an event.

 


Choose a safe, quality product

 

First, know where the hemp was grown. Choose products grown in the US or Canada. If it was grown overseas with potentially relaxed growing standards, it could be contaminated with chemicals, bacteria, and heavy metals that put your health at risk.

 

To ensure a clean, safe product, it is best to buy CBD that has been tested and offers a Certificate of Analysis (COA) posted on the company's website This document shows how the company meets and adheres to product specifications and standards of production.

 

Some other things to pay attention to with CBD products:



CBD isolate, full-spectrum, or broad-spectrum

 

CBD isolate means that the product contains only CBD with no other naturally occurring cannabinoids, including THC. That also means that other substances that are found in the plant, such as terpenes and flavonoids, have been fully extracted.

 

If you are undergoing a drug test for a job, it is best to use the isolate, or stop your usage of the full-spectrum product a week or two before the test.

 

Full-spectrum is a whole plant CBD, meaning that it contains CBD and other cannabinoids (less than 0.3% THC), as well as terpenes, flavonoids, and active essential oils.

 

Broad-spectrum products also contain the whole plant compounds like full-spectrum, but the THC has been removed.

 

The entourage effect. It used to be thought that CBD isolate was the best approach. But it is now better understood that the cannabinoids and plant compounds found in full-spectrum and broad-spectum CBD create a synergism where they work together to complement each other, offering a greater impact on health conditions.


It's important to note that dogs and cats can benefit from hemp-derived full-spectrum CBD, even though they cannot tolerate THC from marijuana. The tiny amount of THC found in this product is safe may further increase the entourage effect.

 


Why is it so expensive?

 

It takes a lot of hemp plants to create a CBD oil (tincture). Products called "hemp oil" are not necessarily concentrated with CBD. Hempseed oil is a nutritious oil, high in essential fatty acids,[28] but it is not a good source of CBD. Before you buy, read the label carefully to determine just how much CBD exists in the product.

 

What extraction method is best?

 

When researching a CBD product for you and your animals, it is best to know the extraction method used to remove CBD from the plant. Going through each method is beyond the scope of this article, but the approach that is most complete and the cleanest is a CO2 extraction. It uses carbon dioxide (CO2) to extract CBD from the plant to create products that are pure and very powerful.

 

How much CBD is in one dose?

 

The label should provide you with the amount of CBD per dose. But it can be confusing.

 

When using a CBD tincture, you should see the number of mgs of CBD in the full bottle. Some products can be very diluted, so be sure the manufacturer's label is detailed and specific.

 

Many tinctures will offer directions by the "dropper-full." But getting a full dropper is not always possible or can be inaccurate. The best approach is to first determine the amount of CBD in each drop. By knowing how many mgs are in each drop, you can accurately dispense the desired dosage.

 

To do this, you need to know these three things:

 

Two examples:

 

1.      CBD tincture that offer 2500 mg of CBD in the entire 30 ml bottle:

 

o   Divide 2500 by 30 to get the number of mg per dropper-full (1 ml). This calculates to be 83.3 mg of CBD in 1 ml

o   Divide 83.3 by 20 to give you the level of CBD per drop. This calculates to be approximately 4 mg per drop.

 

2.      CBD tincture for pets that offers 250 mg of CBD in the entire 30 ml bottle:

o   250 divided by 30 = 8.3 mg of CBD in one dropper-full (1 ml)

o   8.3 divided by 20 = .42 mg (slightly less than 1/2 mg) of CBD per drop

 

Other forms of CBD such as pellets, gummies, capsules, and topicals should offer specific amounts of CBD per dose.

 


What is the best dosage?

Dosages are weight dependent and based on the severity of the situation. It is best to start slowly, and then increase the dose as needed. A little trial and error is necessary to find the right dose that is best for you or your animals. Keep in mind that it takes approximately 2 weeks for the body to experience relief and will continue to improve over time.

 

Dosage recommendations are not standardized. However, through research studies and applications, here are generalized daily guidelines. I have found that dividing the dose into two servings is better than administering once daily.

 

Pets:

Under 25 lbs: 10 mg

25 to 75 lbs: 10 to 20 mg

75 or more lbs: 20-40 mg

 

People:

Less than 100 lbs: 20 to 40 mg

100 to 174 lbs: 30 to 60 mg

Over 175 lbs: 60 to 90 mg

 

Horses:

Minis: 25 to 50 mg

Full sized (1100 lbs): 75 to 170 mg

Large breeds: 120 to 200 mg

 

How to administer CBD

There are several ways to provide CBD:

 

Bottom line

Even though experts have been studying for decades the benefits of CBD, there is still research that needs to be done, especially for horses. Nevertheless, the outcome thus far is encouraging, revealing long-reaching benefits on the natural endocannabinoid system, providing relief from mental and physical ailments that affect us, our families, and our animals.

 

 



[1] Kogan, L., Schoenfeld-Tacher, R., Hellyer, P., and Rishniw, M., 2018. US veterinarians' knowledge, experience, and perception regarding the use of cannabidiol for canine medical conditions. Frontiers of Veterinary Science, volume 10.

[2] Parray, H.A., and Yun, J.W., 2016. Cannabidiol promotes browning in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, volume 416, number 1-2, 131-139.

[3] Tarragon, E., and Moreno, J.J., 2019. Cannabinoids, chemical senses, and regulation of feeding behavior. Chemical Senses, Vol 44, pages 73-89.

[4] Everything you need to know about the 2018 Farm Bill (updated): https://www.hempurecbd.com/farm-bill-2018/

[5] Is CBD oil legal in all 50 states? https://www.hempurecbd.com/is-cbd-oil-legal-in-all-50-states/

[6] FDA regulations of cannabis and cannabis-derived products. https://www.fda.gov/news-events/public-health-focus/fda-regulation-cannabis-and-cannabis-derived-products-questions-and-answers

[7] De Gregorio, D., McLaughlin, R.J., Posa, L., et al., 2019. Cannabidiol modulates serotonergic transmission and reverses both allodynia and anxiety-like behavior in a model of neuropathic pain. Pain, volume 160, number 1, 136-150.

[8] Maple, K.E., McDaniel, K.A., Shollenbarger, S.G., and Lisdahl, K.M., 2017. Dose-dependent cannabis use, depressive symptoms, and FAAH genotype predict sleep quality in emerging adults: A pilot study. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, volume 42, number 4, 431-440.

[9] Hammell, D.C., Zhang, L.P., Ma, F., Abshire, S.M., et al., 2015. Transdermal cannabidiol reduces inflammation and pain-related behaviors in rat model of arthritis. European Journal of Pain, Vol 20, Number 6.

[10] Kunos, G., Osei-Hyiaman, D., Liu, J., et al., 2008. Endocannabinoids and the control of energy homeostasis. Journal of Biological Chemistry, volume 283, number 48, 33021-33025.

[11] Rossi, F., Punzo, F., Umano, G.R., et al., 2018. Role of cannabinoids in obesity. International Journal of Molecular Science, volume 19, number 9.

[12] Mastinu, A., Premoli, M., Ferrari-Toninelli, G., et. al., 2018. Cannabinoids in health and disease: Pharmacological potential in metabolic syndrome and neuroinflammation. Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation, Vol 36, Number 2.

[13] Zgair, A., Lee, J.B., Wong, J.C.M., et al., 2017. Oral administration of cannabis with lipids leads to high levels of cannabinoids in the intestinal lymphatic system and prominent immunomodulation. Scientific Reports.

[14] Irving, P.M., Iqbal, T., Nwokolo, C., et al., 2018. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, pilot study of cannabidiol-rich botanical extract in the symptomatic treatment of ulcerative colitis. Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, Vol 24, Number 4.

[15] Iffland, K., and Grotenhermen, F., 2017. An update on safety and side effects of cannabidiol: A review of clinical data and relevant animal studies. Cannabis Cannabinoid Research, volume 2, number 1, 139-154.

[16] Medical cannabis  - adverse effects and drug reactions. https://doh.dc.gov/sites/default/files/dc/sites/doh/publication/attachments/Medical%20Cannabis%20Adverse%20Effects%20and%20Drug%20Interactions_0.pdf

[17] Cannabidiol: A new option for patients in pain? DVM360, September 2017, p 32-33.

[18] Malaita, A.M., Gallily, R., Sumariwalla, P.F., et al., 2000. The nonpsychoactive cannabis constituent cannabidiol is an oral anti-arthritic therapeutic in murine collagen-induced arthritis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA.

[19] Maroon, J., and Bost, J., 2018. Review of the neurological benefits of phytocannabinoids. Surgical Neurology International, volume 9.

[20] Campos, A.C., Moreira, F.A., Gomes, F.V., et al., 2012. Multiple mechanisms involved in the large-spectrum therapeutic potential of cannabidiol in psychiatric disorders. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society London Series B Biological Science, volume 367, number 1607, pages 3364-3378.

[21] Couch, D.G., Cook, H., Ortori, C, et.al., 2019. Palmitoylethanolamide and cannabidiol prevent inflammation-induced hyperpermeability of the human gut in vitro and in vivo: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind controlled trial. Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, Vol 25, Number 6.

[22] Styrczewska, M., Kostyn, A, Kulma, A., et al., 2015. Flax fiber hydrophobic extract inhibits human skin cells inflammation and causes remodeling of extracellular matrix and wound closure activation. Biomedical Research International.

[23] Booz, G.W., 2012., Cannabidiol as an emergent therapeutic strategy for lessening the impact of inflammation on oxidative stress. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, volume 5, number 5.

[24] Garamond, J.A., Whalley, B.J., and Williams, C.M., 2012. Cannabinol and cannabidiol exert opposing effects on rat feeding patterns. Psychopharmacology, volume 223, number 1, 117-129.

[25] Ignatowska-Jankowska, B., Jankowski, M.M., and Swiergiel, A.H., 2011. Cannabidiol decreases body weight gain in rats: Involvement of CB2 receptors. Neuroscience Letters, 490, 82-84.

[26] Tarragon, E., and Moreno, J.J., 2019. Cannabinoids, chemical senses, and regulation of feeding behavior. Chemical Senses, Vol 44, pages 73-89.

[27] https://www.usef.org/media/press-releases/usef-announces-positive-tests-of-cannabinoids?fbclid=IwAR1zO4dD-Wv4AUZQ896tcRr2JyPeeyWhFNyDM6xw1ABH43z8se-Vu5TRDmQ

[28] Getty, J.M., Choose hemp instead of soy!  http://gettyequinenutrition.biz/library/choosehempinsteadofsoy.htm

[29] Forefront Equine makes an excellent extruded CBD pellet without THC. Available on Dr. Getty's Free Shipping Store: http://gettyequinenutrition.biz/products/forecbdpellets.htm

[30] Hammell, D.C., Zhang, L.P., Ma, F., Abshire, S.M., et al., 2015. Transdermal cannabidiol reduces inflammation and pain-related behaviors in rat model of arthritis. European Journal of Pain, Vol 20, Number 6.



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