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Chia Seeds -- Nature's Tiny Miracle

 

By Juliet M. Getty, Ph.D.

 

It was back in 2010 at a conference in Denver, Colorado, that I came across a booth where chia seeds were being sold as a dietary supplement for horses. I had never heard of chia seeds!  Did you know about them 10 years ago? Since that time, chia seeds have become a booming crop for horses (and people!). Maybe you're feeding them to your horses as we speak, or maybe you're not familiar with them. Either way, I'm here to delve into their benefits, and I believe you’ll appreciate chia seeds even more than before.  

 Chia seeds are tiny! 

 Each one measures approximately 1 millimeter -- that's about 1/25th of an inch! But don't let that sway you -- they offer a powerful nutritional punch. They are high in fiber (42%), protein (18%), vitamins and minerals, and antioxidants, but they are best known for their high essential fatty acid content (both omega 3 and 6).[1] 

 Chia seeds are 30% fat

 This includes the two essential fatty acids, alpha linolenic acid (ALA) -- an omega 3, and linoleic acid (LA) -- an omega 6. They are present in a highly favorable 3:1 ratio of omega 3 to 6. This ratio comes close to what is naturally found in living pasture grasses. But most commercially fortified feeds have just opposite ratio where LA exceeds ALA. That's because most of them use oils such as soybean oil (commonly referred to as "vegetable oil"), corn oil, or safflower oil, all of which are very high in LA. The result is an inverted ratio between these two fatty acids, which unfortunately increases inflammation throughout the body. The way to counteract it is to add a source of omega 3s, such as chia seeds, to improve the ratio and reverse the inflammatory response.

 Chia seeds have additional nutritional benefits[2]

 ·         Caffeic acid. No, that's not caffeine. It is a type of polyphenol found in plants that is known for its antioxidant properties and its ability to reduce inflammation.[3]

 ·         Quercetin. This is a biologically active flavonoid that works with vitamin C to provide an "antioxidant team." It is effective in reducing the inflammation that occurs during allergic responses. It also protects against heart disease and cancers.[4]

 ·         Phenolic compounds. These include vitamin E and beta carotene. They are potent antioxidants, which scavenge free-radicals and prevent cellular oxidation and disease.

 ·         Mucilage. This is a water-soluble fiber, that holds water 27 times its own weight. It forms a gel when water is added to chia seeds.

 ·         Kaempferol. A flavonoid that not only exhibits antioxidant properties, but also anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-cancer, as well as neuroprotective and anti-diabetic activities.[5]

 

Chia seeds can help your horse in a variety of ways

Their potent nutraceutical content significantly impacts your horse’s health and vitality by impacting the following conditions:

·         Weight management for hard or easy keepers. Their high fat content provides calories for the horse needing to gain weight. But overweight horses also benefit. Their high ALA content lowers circulating insulin levels.[6] In addition, they reduce inflammation created by body fat that can lead to leptin resistance, thereby aiding in weight loss.[7]

·         Easing joint and muscle pain. ALA alleviates pain through its COX2 enzyme inhibition, much like the drug firocoxib (Equioxx).[8]

·         Ulcer prevention and cure. The mucilage and quercetin content of chia seeds helps protect and heal the mucosal lining throughout the stomach and remainder of the gastrointestinal tract.[9]

·         Colic prevention. Chia seeds are often touted to prevent sand colic. While its mucilage content does not actually bind to sand, the gel adds significant bulk to the hindgut. This aids in ensuring that the cecum is full -- a necessary condition because its entrance and exit are at the top! Therefore, for sand to reach the top, there needs to be enough digested material to carry it out the exit. By making sure your horse has access to forage 24/7, all day and all night, you'll ensure a full cecum and reduce the incidence of colic.[10]  

·         Allergy relief -- both respiratory and skin-related. ALA is effective in reducing the histamine reaction[11] that impacts your horse’s respiration. It can also benefit horses suffering from chronic airway inflammatory disease.[12] Skin reactions, in particular, allergic responses to culicoides (sweet itch) are improved by feeding a source of ALA.[13]

·         Metabolic conditions, including insulin resistance and Cushing's disease. The high amount of soluble fiber in chia seeds slows down the absorption of glucose into the bloodstream, modulating insulin spikes.[14] 

·         Healthy hooves and hair. The high-quality protein found in chia seeds supports the production of keratin, the protein found in hooves and hair. With more copper and zinc than iron, chia seeds balance these minerals with the high iron found in forages to further enhance hoof and skin health.

·         Chronic inflammation from osteoarthritis, laminitis, and metabolic syndrome. ALA modulates inflammatory responses throughout the whole body, whereas LA increases inflammation. Hence, a diet that offers more ALA than LA will reduce inflammation and oxidative stress.[15]  

·         Immune response. ALA promotes a healthy immune response by stabilizing cell membranes.[16]   

 

How much to feed

 

An 1100 lb (500 kg) horse does well with 1/4 cup (2 fluid ounces) to 1/2 cup (4 fluid ounces) of chia seeds per day, which weighs approximately 2 to 4 ounces (approximately 50 to 100 grams), respectively. For serious health issues, dosing can be increased up to 1 cup (8 fluid ounces or 200 grams) per day, divided between meals. It is best to add water to them and allow them to plump up a bit before being fed, however, they do not need to be soaked and may be fed dry.  

 

Are there any disadvantages to feeding chia to horses?

Not really. But a few things to consider...

·         Chia seeds are high in fat, and hence, high in calories. If your horse is overweight, you would want to reduce the dosage. But remember -- horses require a source of ALA and LA every day because their bodies cannot produce them. And the hay you are feeding contains little if any of these two essential fatty acids.

·         The genetics of donkeys, mules, and ponies calls for a diet lower in fat than for full-sized horses or even miniature horses.[17] While they need less fat, this doesn't negate the fact that they require a daily source of essential fatty acids. So, feed chia seeds; just feed less.

·         The conversion rate of ALA to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) is low.[18] When a horse consumes ALA, it is elongated to larger omega 3 fatty acids, DHA and EPA which have much more significant biological activity. These are typically found in fish oils. Since horses are not fish-eaters, they must rely on converting ALA to these omega 3 forms. However, if the diet is high in LA relative to ALA, the high LA will inhibit the synthesis of DHA and EPA.[19]  For horses suffering from significant inflammation, supplementation of fish oil, or high-DHA algal oil is beneficial.

 

What about flax seeds?  Aren't they just as good?

Yes, flax seeds are also wonderful. Offering similar nutrients, they are also high in essential fatty acids and are comparable to chia seeds with a few differences:                                                         

 Bottom line

 All equines can benefit from the addition of chia seeds to the diet. As a whole food, they are nutrient dense in their natural state, offering a vast array of benefits that boost health and improve your horse’s overall quality of life.  

 


[2] de Falco, B., Amato, M., and Lanzotti, V., 2017. Chia seeds products: an overview. Phytochemical Review, 16, 745-760.

[3] Liu, Z., Fu, J., Shan, L., et al., 2014. Synthesis, preliminary bioevaluation and computational analysis of caffeic acid analogues. International Journal of Molecular Science, 15(5), 8808-8820.

[4] Micek., J., Jurikova, T., Skrovankova, S., and Sochor, J., 2016. Quercetin and its anti-allergic immune response. Molecules, 21(5), 623;  And Boots, A.W., Haenen, G.R., and Bast, A., 2008. Health effects of quercetin: from antioxidant to nutraceutical. European Journal of Pharmacology, 585(2-3), 325-337;  And Vargas, A.J., and Burd, R., 2010. Hormesis and synergy: pathways and mechanisms of quercetin in cancer prevention and management. Nutrition Review, 68(7), 418-428.

[5] Calderon-Montano, J.M., Burgos-Moron, E., Perez-Guerrero, C., and Lopez-Lazaro, M., 2011. A review of the dietary flavonoid kaempferol. Mini Review of Medical Chemistry, 11(4), 298-344.

[6] Heskey, C.E., Jaceldo-Siegl, K., Sabate, J., et.al., 2016. Adipose tissue alpha-linoleic acid is inversely associated with insulin resistance in adults. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 103(4), 1105-1110.

[7] McCullough, R.S., Edel, A.L., Bassett, C.M.C., et.al., 2011. The alpha linolenic acid content of flaxseed is associated with an induction of leptin expression. Lipids, 46(11), 1043-1052.

[8] Anand, R., and Kaithwas, G., 2014. Anti-inflammatory potential of alpha-linolenic acid mediated through selective COX inhibition: Computational and experimental data. Inflammation, 27(4), 1297-1306.

[9] Borrelli, F., and Izzo, A.A., 2000. The plant kingdom as a source of anti-ulcer remedies. Phytotherapy Research, 14(8), 581-591.

[10] Getty, J.M. Gas colic – common but preventable. http://gettyequinenutrition.biz/library/gascoliccommonbutpreventable.htm

[11] Hashimoto, A., Katagiri, M., Torii, S., et.al., 1988. Effect of dietary alpha-linolenate/linoleate balance on leukotriene production and histamine release in rats. Prostaglandins, 36(1), 3-16.

[12] Nogradi, N., Couetil, L.L., Messick, J., et.al., 2015. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation provides an additional benefit to low-dust diet in the management of horses with chronic lower airway inflammatory disease. Journal of Internal Veterinary Medicine, 29(1), 299-306.

[13] O’Neill, W., McKee, Sh., and Clarke, A.F., 2002. Flaxseed (linum usitatissimum) supplementation associated with reduced skin test lesional area in horses with Culicoides hypersensitivity. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, 66(4), 272-277.

[14] Brokner, C., Austbo, D., Naesset, J.A., et.al., 2016. Metabolic response to dietary fibre composition in horses. Animal, 10(7), 1155-1163.

[15] Hess, T. and Ross-Jones, T., 2014. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in horses. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia. 43. 677-683. http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982014001200677

[16] Lamprecht, E., 2013. Omega fatty acids: What do they do for horses? The Horse. https://thehorse.com/116856/omega-fatty-acids-what-do-they-do-for-horses/; And Fritsch, K. 2006. Fatty acids ad modulators of the immune response. Annual Review of Nutrition, 26, 45-73.

[17] Getty, J.M. Feed a miniature horse as a horse. http://gettyequinenutrition.biz/library/feedaminiaturehorseasahorse.htm

[18] Ezanno, H., Beauchamp, E., Catheline, D., et.al., 2015. Beneficial impact of a mix of dairy fat with rapeseed oil on n‐6 and n‐3 PUFA metabolism in the rat: A small enrichment in dietary alpha‐linolenic acid greatly increases its conversion to DHA in the liver. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 117(3), 281-290.

[19] Richards, N. Omega 3 for horses: What, why, how? https://feedxl.com/29-omega-3/

[20] Saphier, O., Silberstein, T., Kamer, H., et.al., 2017. Chia seeds are richer in polyphenols compared to flax seeds. https://www.oatext.com/Chia-seeds-are-richer-in-polyphenols-compared-to-flax-seeds.php



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